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Measurement Process Qualification - Gage Acceptance and Measurement Uncertainty According to Current Standards

von: Edgar Dietrich, Alfred Schulze

Carl Hanser Fachbuchverlag, 2011

ISBN: 9783446429550 , 444 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

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Measurement Process Qualification - Gage Acceptance and Measurement Uncertainty According to Current Standards


 

Preface

6

Preface to the 2nd Edition

7

Preface to the 3rd Edition

7

Table of Contents

10

1 Measurement Process Capability

14

1.1 Introduction

14

1.1.1 Why Measurement Process Capability?

14

1.2 Historical Retrospect and Prospect

20

1.2.1 Development “Measurement Process Capability”

22

1.3 Notes from the Authors about MSA [1] and VDA 5 [70]

24

1.4 Experimental Evaluation

25

2 Gage Monitoring as a Basis for Measurement Process Capability

29

2.1 Gage Calibration

29

2.2 Dial Gage Calibration

30

2.3 Capability Studies for Standard Gages

32

3 Definitions and Terms

35

3.1 Process

35

3.2 Measurement Process

35

3.3 Testing

36

3.4 Measuring Equipment

37

3.5 Measurement Deviations and Measurement Uncertainty

40

3.5.1 Bias

41

3.5.2 Repeatability

42

3.5.3 Reproducibility

43

3.5.4 Linearity

44

3.5.5 Measurement Stability

46

4 Influencing Factors on the Measurement Process

47

4.1 Typical Influencing Factors

47

4.2 Impact of the Influencing Factors

50

4.3 Evaluation of the Measurement Process

53

5 Gage Capability as a Measurement Process Capability Study

57

5.1 Basic Procedures and Methods

57

5.2 Evaluation of Gages

60

5.2.1 Uncertainty of the Standard Master / Calibration Master

60

5.2.2 Influence of the Resolution

62

5.2.3 Evaluation of the Bias

64

5.2.4 Study Type 1

66

5.2.5 Quality Capability Indices Cg and Cgk

71

5.2.6 Study Type 1 for Characteristics with Unilateral Tolerances

79

5.2.7 Study Type 1 for Several Characteristics

82

5.2.8 Linearity

82

5.3 Evaluation of the Measurement Process

93

5.3.1 Range Method (Short Method)

93

5.3.2 Study Type 2: %R&R with Operator Influence

95

5.3.3 Study Type 3: %R&R without Operator Influence

115

5.4 Testing Measurement Stability

118

5.5 Further Studies

122

5.5.1 Study Type 4

122

5.5.2 Study Type 5

124

5.6 Method according to CNOMO

127

6 Capability Study of Attribute Measurement Processes

130

6.1 Attribute Gages

130

6.2 Attribute Gaging or Variable Measuring

131

6.3 Requirements for Successful Inspections by Attribute

132

6.4 Analysis of Attribute Measurement Processes “Short Method”

133

6.5 Analysis of Attribute Measurement Processes “Extended Method“

136

6.5.1 Introduction

136

6.5.2 Testing Hypotheses

140

6.5.3 Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Attribute Measurement System

146

6.5.4 Signal Recognition Method

150

7 Extended Measurement Uncertainty

156

7.1 Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement

156

7.1.1 Basic Principles

156

7.1.2 Aim and Purpose of the GUM

157

7.1.3 Field of Application

158

7.1.4 Contents of the Guide

159

7.1.5 Terms and Definitions

160

7.2 Determination of Measurement Uncertainties

163

7.2.1 Determination of the Standard Uncertainty

164

7.2.2 Determination of the Combined Standard Uncertainty

169

7.2.3 Determination of the Extended Uncertainty

171

7.2.4 Logging of the Uncertainty

174

7.2.5 Expression of the Result

175

7.3 GUM H.1 Example: Gage Block Calibration

176

7.3.1 Measuring Task

176

7.3.2 Standard Uncertainties

177

7.4 Calibration of a Weight for the Nominal Value of 10 kg (S2)

185

7.4.1 Measuring Task

185

7.4.2 Standard Uncertainties

185

7.4.3 Extended Measurement Uncertainty and Complete Measurement Result

192

7.5 Calibrating a Caliper

194

7.5.1 Measuring Task

194

7.5.2 Standard Measurement Uncertainty (S10.3-S10.9)

195

7.5.3 Extended Measurement Uncertainty and Complete Measurement Result

198

7.6 GUM Interpretation for Measurement Processes in Series Production

200

8 Extended Measurement Uncertainty according to ISO 22514-7 or VDA 5

201

8.1 VDA 5 Flow Chart

201

8.1.1 Schematic Approach

202

8.1.2 Gage Capability

203

8.1.3 Determination of the Standard Uncertainty as per Determination Method A

204

8.1.4 Determination of the Standard Uncertainty as per Determination Method B

205

8.2 Principal Standard Uncertainty Components

207

8.2.1 Standard Uncertainty uCAL

209

8.2.2 Standard Uncertainty of the Resolution uRE

209

8.2.3 Standard Uncertainty uBI

210

8.2.4 Standard Uncertainty uMS in Case of Standard Gages

211

8.2.5 Standard Uncertainty Caused by Equipment Variation at the Reference Part uEVR

212

8.2.6 Standard Uncertainty Caused by Equipment Variation at the Object uEVO

212

8.2.7 Standard Uncertainty Caused by the Operator Influence uAV

214

8.2.8 Standard Uncertainty Caused by the Test Object uOBJ

214

8.2.9 Standard Uncertainty Caused by the Temperature Influence uT

217

8.2.10 Standard Uncertainty Caused by Non-linearity uLIN

220

8.2.11 Standard Uncertainty Caused by Stability uSTAB

221

8.3 Multiple Consideration of Uncertainty Components

223

8.4 Determination of the Extended Measurement Uncertainty

224

8.5 Consideration of the Extended Measurement Uncertainty at the Specification Limits

224

8.6 VDA 5 Case Studies

226

8.6.1 Example: “Linear Measurement Using a Standard Gage”

226

8.6.2 Example: “Linear Measurement Using a Particular Gage”

233

9 Simplified Determination of the Measurement Uncertainty

240

9.1 AIO Procedure (“All-in-One” Procedure)

240

9.1.1 Measurement Process Capability Study

240

9.1.2 Determination of the Extended Measurement Uncertainty

240

9.2 Practical Examples of the “All-in-One” Procedure

244

9.2.1 Measurement Process with Linear Material Measure

244

9.2.2 Measurement Processes without Linear Material Measure

246

10 Special Cases in Measurement Process Capability

249

10.1 What Is a Special Case?

249

10.2 Typical Special Cases

249

11 How to Handle Incapable Measurement Processes

251

11.1 Procedure for Improving Measurement Processes

251

12 Typical Questions about Measurement Process Capability

254

12.1 Questions

254

12.2 Answers

254

13 Capability Studies in Visual Inspections

257

13.1 Requirements for Visual Inspections

257

13.2 Aptitude Test for Visual Inspectors

258

14 Purchase of Gages

261

14.1 Example for a Measuring Task Description

262

14.2 Example for a Requirement Specification

263

15 Proof of Suitability for Test Software

264

15.1 General Consideration

264

15.2 The Myth of “Excel Tables“

267

15.3 Gage Capability Test Examples

270

16 Appendix

283

16.1 Tables

283

16.1.1 d2* Table for the Determination of k Factors and Degrees of Freedom for t Values

283

16.1.2 Capability Limits according to VDA 5

286

16.1.3 k Factors

287

16.2 Analysis of Variance Models

287

16.2.1 Measurement System Analysis – Study Type 2

287

16.2.2 Measurement System Analysis – Study Type 3

292

17 Reference

295

17.1 Abbreviations

295

17.2 Formulas

299

17.3 Bibliography

301

17.4 Figures

309

17.5 Tables

313

18 “Measurement System Capability” Reference Manual

314

1 Introduction

315

1.1 EN ISO 9001

315

1.2 EN ISO 10012 Quality Assurance Requirements for Measuring Equipment

315

1.3 QS-9000 Requirements

315

1.4 VDA 6.1 Requirements

316

1.5 GUM and EN ISO 14253-1

317

1.6 ANFIA AVSQ94 Requirements

317

2 Definitions

317

2.1 Measurement Deviation

317

2.1.1 Bias

317

2.1.2 Random Measurement Deviation

318

2.2 Measuring Device

318

2.3 Gage

318

2.4 Measuring Equipment

318

2.5 Linearity

319

2.6 Standard Master / Calibration Master / Reference Part

319

2.7 Measuring Chain

320

2.8 Measurement Process / Measurement System

320

2.9 Repeatability

320

2.10 Reproducibility

321

2.11 Measurement Stability

322

3 Scope

322

4 Procedures for a Capability Study

323

4.1 Measuring Device Resolution

323

4.2 Study Type 1

323

4.3 Study Type 2

323

4.4 Study Type 3

323

4.5 Linearity

324

4.6 Measurement Stability

324

4.7 Procedure

324

5 Study Type 1

326

6 Study Type 2

330

7 Study Type 3

333

8 Linearity / Analysis at the Specification Limits

336

8.1 Preliminary Notes

336

8.2 Defintion of “Linearity”

336

8.3 Determination of the Bias

338

8.4 Evaluation of the Linearity

339

8.5 Regression Analysis

339

8.6 Linearity Study

339

8.7 Analysis at the Specification Limits

339

9 Measurement Stability

340

19 GM PowerTrain Measurement Systems Specification (SP-Q-MSS)

342

20 Bosch Booklet 10: Capability of Measurement and Test Processes

415

21 Index

441