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Integrating Safety-II into Safety Management - Generalized Guidelines for a Safety-II-based Tool: Measure Evaluation and Effectiveness Assessment
Toni Wäfler, Rahel Gugerli, Giulio Nisoli
Verlag vdf Hochschulverlag AG, 2021
ISBN 9783728140234 , 103 Seiten
We all aim for safe processes. However, providing safety is a complex endeavour. What is it that makes a process safe? And what is the contribution of humans? It is very common to consider humans a risk factor prone to errors. Therefore, we implement sophisticated safety management systems (SMS) in order to prevent potential 'human failure'. These SMS provide an impressive increase of safety. In safety science this approach is labelled 'Safety-I', and it starts to be questioned because humans do not show failures only. On the contrary, they often actively contribute to safety, sometimes even by deviating from a procedure. This 'Safety-II' perspective considers humans to be a 'safety factor' as well because of their ability to adjust behaviour to the given situation. However, adaptability requires scope of action and this is where Safety-I and Safety-II contradict each other. While the former restricts freedom of action, the latter requires room for manoeuvring. Thus, the task of integrating the Safety-II perspective into SMS, which are traditionally Safety-I based, is difficult. This challenge was the main objective of our project. We discovered two methods that contribute to the quality of SMS by integrating Safety-II into SMS without jeopardizing the Safety-I approach.
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